To remember that this form has a cause and effect component, I think it is easiest to remember this form as meaning “(and) so”. It can be used in two ways from the first person speaker:
1.) To express cause-and-effect
어제 저는 노래방에 가서 노래를 많이 불렀더니 오늘 목이 아파요. Yesterday I went to the noraebang and sang a lot (and) so today my throat is hurting.
a.) 저는 /제가 first person speaker can only use this form when speaking about self.
b.) The second clause shows an effect resulting from the speaker’s own actions. Therefore, incidents which the speaker could not have helped cannot be used in this form (such as 감기에 걸렸다/차 사고 났다). You must use action verbs that the speaker is capable of controlling.
2.) To connect quotes with action
이가 아파서 치과에 갔어요.+ (의사 선생님이) 1주일 후에 다시 한 번 오래요.
-> 이가 아파서 치과에 갔더니 1주일 후에 다시 한 번 오래요. (My tooth was hurting so I went to the dentist, and (so) (the doctor) said to come back in a week.)